The United States of America is another important English-speaking country. It consists of fifty different states and the District of Columbia joined together under one government.
The USA covers an area of almost 9400000 square kilometres and is twice as large as all the countries of Europe combined. It is placed in the middle of the North American continent and is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the east and the Pacific Ocean in the west. Placed between two oceans, the USA has a free access to the trade routes of the world.
The USA is divided into three areas: Eastern area ≈ a highland. Central area ≈ a plain, and the Western area which is mountainous. The north-western part of the USA includes five lakes. The whole central plain constitutes the basin of the Mississippi River. The Mississippi is one of the longest rivers in the world.
On the whole the USA has a continental climate. It is at the same time one of the coldest and one of the hottest countries, one of the wettest and one on the driest.
The flag of the United States is called ⌠Stars and Stripes■. The 50 stars represent the 50 states and the 13 stripes represent 13 original English colonies, which in 1776 became free and independent of England.
The USA is governed by Congress and by the President. Congress consists of the Senate (100 senators ≈ 2 from each state) and the House of Representatives (435 Congressmen). The President, who is also the head of the government and the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces, is elected every four years.
The capital of the United States is Washington. It is situated on the Potomac River not far from the Atlantic coast. Washington is not a very large city. Such cities as New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Houston, Dallas, Philadelphia, Detroit, New Orleans and some others are more larger.
The USA is one of the most developed country in the world. It is a country of great contrasts. There are a lot of unsolved problems in the country such as unemployment and inflation, but nevertheless it is one of the greatest countries in the world.
Words and expressions
1. area ≈ площадь
2. free access ≈ свободный доступ
3. trade routes ≈ торговые пути
4. highland ≈ высокогорье
5. plain ≈ равнина
6. basin ≈ бассейн
7. stripe ≈ полоса
8. commander-in-chief ≈ главнокомандующий
9. armed forces ≈ вооруженные силы
10. to elect≈ избирать
The capital of the United States of America was founded in 1791 in the District of Columbia. The capital received the name of Washington ≈ after the name of the commander-in-chief of the American army in the War for Independence who became the first President of the United States. President Washington himself took an active part in choosing the place for the capital. He invited a famous French engineer, Pierre Charles L'Enfant. With a help and advice of Washington, he drew a plan of a city with straight streets running far into a great distance. It was something new in those days.
There is a law in Washington against building structures higher than the Capitol; therefore it represents a different appearance from New York with its sky-scrapers. The Capitol, where the Congress meets is a very high and beautiful building with white marble columns. It is in the very centre of the city. Four avenues radiate from the Capitol dividing the city into four parts. Not far from the Capitol is the Library of Congress. It holds five million books. Today Washington is a city which attracts a lot of tourists by its fashionable hotels, restaurants and sightseeing attractions as ⌠Mount Vernon■ the house of the first president George Washington, the Lincoln Memorial, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, the White House and others. The White House, the residence of the president, is the oldest public structure in the capital and one of the most beautiful. Among the newer buildings one of the most imposing is the National Gallery of Art.
The city of Washington, with its long wide avenues, with shady trees on both sides, its low buildings and its crowds of government officials is very interesting and beautiful.
Words and expressions
1. independence ≈ независимость
2. to receive ≈ получать
3. structure ≈ здание
4. sky-scraper ≈ небоскреб
5. marble ≈ мраморный
6. to attract ≈ привлекать
7. tomb ≈ могила
8. imposing ≈ внушительный
New York is one of the largest cities in the world. Its population is over 11 million people. New York is an industrial and cultural centre of the country. Most business is centred in Manhattan Island. The whole area is very small, that's why the sky-scrapers were invented in New York and, especially, in Wall Street. Wall Street is a narrow street with big houses, but it is well known all over the world as the busiest street in the USA. People do business there. There are two more world-famous streets ≈ Broadway and Fifth Avenue. Broadway is the centre of the theatres and night life. It is known as ⌠The Great White Way■ because of the electric signs which turn night into day.
It is the city that never goes to sleep. Buses and sub-way run all night. There are many drugstores and restaurants which never close their doors. There are cinemas with films that start at midnight. Fifth Avenue is the great shopping, hotel, and club avenue.
New York is the largest port in America. More than half the trade of the United States goes through this city.
There are many places of interest in New York. They are: the Statue of Liberty, the United Nations Building, Empire State Building, Columbia University, City Hall, New York Public Library and others. When you come to New York you see lots of cars, big and small, black and yellow, old and modem; you do not see any trees or flowers in the streets, but only cars. You'll see and hear advertisements everywhere. There is no getting away from them. Advertisements fill the newspapers and cover the walls, they are on menu-cards and match-boxes, they are shouted through loud speakers and shown in the cinemas.
Words and expressions
2. sign ≈ вывеска
3. subway ≈ метро
4. drugstore ≈ аптека
5. midnight ≈ полночь
6. place of interest ≈ достопримечательность
7. advertisement ≈реклама
The Commonwealth of Australia is a federal state within the Commonwealth of Nations. Its territories are the continent of Australia, the island of Tasmania and a number of smaller islands. It has an area of about eight million square kilometres.
The continent of Australia is mostly a great plain with mountains in the east and south-east. The western part of the continent forms a plateau which occupies half of the continent. Australia's greatest rivers are the Murray and the Darling. Australia has several different climatic regions, from warm to subtropical and tropical.
There are five big cities in Australia: Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth and Brisbane. Each city is the capital of the state in which it is situated. Most of the factories are concentrated in or around the big cities. They produce goods for the motor-car, machine-building, clothing and food industries. Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Brisbane and Perth are the country's main ports. Agriculture is the main occupation in Australia. Wheat and sugar are the main agricultural crops, fruit-growing is also highly developed. Australia is famous for its sheep. The great sheep-farms, called sheep-stations are found in many parts of the country.
Today there are about fifteen million people in Australia, most of them are of British origin. There are now only 40000 full aborigines in the country.
The Commonwealth of Australia is a self-governing federal state. Formally the head of the state is the King or Queen of England represented by the Governor-General. The Commonwealth of Australia consists of six states and two territories: the Federal Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. The Capital Territory is the land around the Federal Capital, Canberra. Australia has a parliament in each state and the Federal Parliament of the Commonwealth at Canberra. The Federal Parliament consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The federal government of the country is headed by the Prime Minister, usually the leader of the party which has the majority.
Words and expressions
1. plain ≈ равнина
2. plateau ≈ плато
3. occupation ≈ занятие, род деятельности
4. origin ≈ происхождение
5. Governor-General ≈ генерал-губернатор
6. representative ≈ представитель
7. self-governing ≈ самоуправляющийся
8. majority ≈ большинство
9. Commonwealth ≈ содружество
New Zealand, an independent state and a member of the Commonwealth, is situated south-east from Australia. The country consists of three large islands and also many small islands. New Zealand is a mountainous country. New Zealand's rivers are short. The climate in New Zealand is warm and the greater part of the country is well watered. There are good forests of evergreen trees and large areas are rich grasslands. New Zealand has very few native animals. The kiwi, a bird which lives in the forest and does not fly, is found nowhere else in the world. The kiwi is the national emblem of New Zealand.
The main cities in North Island are Auckland, the largest city and port, and Wellington, the capital. Christchurch and Dunedin are the most important towns in South Island. New Zealand is sometimes called ⌠The Britain of the Pacific■, because the cities and towns of the country resemble very much those of England. New Zealand's climate with rainfalls all the year round, is very favourable for dairying, sheep-farming and cattle-farming, as well as growing fruit, vegetables and flowers.
The population of New Zealand is over three million people, more than two thirds of whom live in North Is-land. The Maori people make up eight per cent of the total population. The Maoris are famous for their folk-songs, music and dances, they are very skilled in wood-work.
New Zealand is a self-governing state and a member of the Commonwealth. The Governor-General represents the King or Queen of England. The Parliament of the country consists of one house only, the House of Representatives. The Prime Minister heads the cabinet. The main political parties are the Labour Party and the National Party of New Zealand.
Words and expressions
1. independent ≈ независимый
2. evergreen ≈ вечнозеленый
3. grassland ≈ район лугов и пастбищ
4. native ≈ местный
5. to resemble ≈ иметь сходство
6. rainfall ≈ ливень
7. dairying ≈ молочная промышленность
8. cabinet ≈ кабинет министров
My native city is Rostov-on-Don. It is the capital of the Don area. It was founded in 1749. It is situated on the right bank of the river Don.
In the past Rostov was a small town with small population. But now the territory of Rostov-on-Don is 380 square kilometres and the population is more than one million people.
Our city is a big industrial, scientific and cultural centre in the South of Russia. The plant ⌠Rostselmash■ is known not only in our country but abroad as well.
The largest scientific and educational establishment is the Rostov State University, which was founded in 1915 and now has more then ten faculties.
In Rostov there are four theatres: Gorky Drama Theatre, Musical Comedy, Puppet Show, Theatre of Young Spectators. The Gorky Theatre is surrounded by a large park named after the October Revolution. It is one of many parks and gardens which make Rostov a green town and where Rostovites like to walk on a nice sunny day.
During the Second World War Rostov-on-Don was occupied twice (1941 and 1942). The war cost Rostovites huge losses in life. That is why in the city there are a lot of monuments devoted to the war years and people who gave their lives for our peaceful life.
Rostov-on-Don is a large transport centre. It is not only a big knot of railways and airways but it is also the port of five seas (the Baltic, the White, the Caspian, the Black and the Sea of Asov).
Nowadays Rostov-on-Don as many other cities and villages in Russia is undergone the process of economical changes. Factories and plants can hardly survive in the conditions of deep economic crisis. But we hope that in some years people will be able to overpass all the difficulties and Rostov-on-Don will occupy its place of one of the biggest industrial cities of Russia.
Words and expressions
1. bank ≈ берег
2. abroad ≈ за рубежом
3. establishment ≈ учреждение
4. puppet show ≈ кукольный театр
5. cost ≈ стоить
6. loss ≈ потеря
7. knot ≈ узел
8. to be undergone ≈ подвергаться
9. to survive ≈ выживать
10. to overpass ≈ преодолеть
11. huge ≈ огромный
Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. Its total area is over 17 million square kilometres. It is situated both in Europe and in Asia.
There are different types of climate on its territory. It is very cold in the North even in summer, and very warm in the South even in winter. There are many rivers in Russia, the longest are the Volga and the Yenisei and the Ob'.
The population of Russia is about 150 million people. The capital of our country is Moscow.
As for the political system, Russia is a federal republic. The legislative body of the country is State Duma and the executive body is a Council of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister. The president is the head of the state and the government. He is elected every four years.
Big changes in political and economical life have happened in Russia during last years. Our country is involved in the complicated process of formation of completely new relations in international and domestic life. First the political life has been changed. For the first time since 1917 we have started the construction of democratic society, the correction of all mistakes made by the communist regime for 70 years. The most difficult thing is the alter-nation of people's mentality. As now there is no such notion like ⌠capitalism is the socialism's enemy■ usual for the consciousness of many generations of former soviet citizens.
The changes in the sphere of economy are being done with great difficulties. Almost all the connections between the republics of the former USSR have been broken. The formation of the new economy is a very long process of creation of new economic connections with inner and foreign partners. The political ambitions of many countries of the former USSR and hard inflation processes in the country are the real obstacles on the way to the new economy. But in spite of all these facts we should say, that Russia is going ahead. This can be proved, for example, by the attitude to our country in the world, by the first democratic elections of the President of Russia. This event became the great landmark in the history of the renewed Russian state. We believe in the great future of Russia.
Words and expressions
1. legislative body ≈ законодательный орган
2. executive body ≈ исполнительный орган
3. to elect ≈ избирать
4. to be involved ≈ быть вовлеченным
5. complicated ≈ сложный
6. mentality ≈ мировоззрение
7. consciousness ≈ сознание
8. generation ≈ поколение
9.former ≈ бывший
10. connection ≈ связь
11. inner ≈ внутренний
12. obstacle ≈ препятствие
13. attitude ≈ отношение
14. landmark ≈ веха
15. renewed ≈ обновленный
16. alternation ≈ изменение
17. ill spite of≈ несмотря на
Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is the seat of the highest bodies of state authority.
Moscow was founded in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruky. In the 15th century Moscow became the capital of Russian state. With the transfer of Russia's capital to St. Peter-sburg in 1712, it became the country's second capital. In 1918 it became the capital of Russian Federation, and from 1922 to 1991 it was the capital of the USSR.
Present-day Moscow is a capital of Russian Federation. Moscow has more than 5000 streets and squares taking up an area of 1000 square kilometres. The population is about 9 million, plus some three million guests coming annually.
Moscow is a country's major industrial centre, unrivalled in the strength of its work force and the range of manufactured goods. Machine building, instrument ma-king and radio electronics are the leading industries of the capital. Moscow is the major transportation hub linked by rail, road and air with all the areas of Russia and with many countries.
Moscow is the main scientific centre of Russia housing the Russian Academy of Sciences, 78 higher educational institutions and many scientific and research establishments. Moscow is the venue of important congresses and conferences, scientific symposiums, art exhibitions, festivals and sport competitions.
Moscow is the major tourist centre of Russia. Thou-sands of people who visit our capital, come to see its Red Square, the main square in Moscow and Russia and the famous Kremlin, numerous museums, theatres and exhibitions. The most famous are the Bolshoi Theatre, the Tretyakov Art Gallery, Pushkin Fine Arts Museum and many others. The city impresses everybody with its streets lined with fine buildings, its large squares, green parks, its wide bridges, its beautiful embankments, churches and monuments.
Russia's centre of present-day transformations, Moscow combines the memories of the past with all that is sacred today and holds a good promise for the future. Moscow is an ever young city, which is always growing and changing. It is a city dear to the heart of every Russian man.
Words and expressions
1. authority - власть
2. transfer - перенос
3. annually - ежегодно
4. unrivalled - не имеющий себе равных
5. hub - ⌠сердце■, центр
6. venue - место встречи
7. embankment - набережная
8. sacred - священный, дорогой